The phenomenon of the Alien Abduction Expereince (AAE) is a prevailing, world wide issue that has proposed many problems for the scientific community in terms of establishing a parsimonious explanation. The interest for psychologists lies in its profound affect on individuals who report AAE and the implications that may have on the existing cultural tenets of the Western world view. The etiology of the alien abduction experience is examined in relation to current theories; psychopathology, personality, psychodynamics, electromagnetism, hoaxes, false-memory syndrome (suggestability, hypnotizability, fantasy proneness), and sleep disorders, in specific sleep paralysis. Subjects who have reported being victims of Alien Abduction(s) will hither to be referred to as experiencers (so as not to presume an actual alien abduction has taken place nor to imply deliberate deception on their part).
In 1992, Budd Hopkins, David Jacobs and Ron Westrum, published their claim that 3.7million Americans have been abducted by aliens at some point in their lives, the Roper Poll. This incredible claim was based on a questionairre that is highly suspect in its ability to identify such an experience and has been dismissed by the wider scientific community based on grounds of severely faulty logic. However, it has been embraced with enthusiasm by much of the public and media, encouraging the fascination with this modern mystery. But beyond the dreams of science fiction enthusiasts, popular culture and media hype, there lies a far more serious and intriguing issue; the phenomenon of the Alien Abduction Experience (AAE). Contrary to popular scientific belief, there is a growing community of people who genuinely claim they have been subject to alien abductions – people who do not appear to be seeking celebrity status and money, do not appear to have any clear psychiatric or psychological disorder. In fact, as a result of the consistent narratives of individual accounts of the experience and the consistent symptoms which follow their experience, a clear set criteria of this alien abduction experience has emerged. Many different areas of psychology have been involved in trying to find a parsimonious explanation for the AAE, but so far there has been little success in establishing any theory that can consistently account for all the elements of this traumatic phenomenon. This is a difficult issue for many to address as the possibility of aliens existing and furthermore having capabilities to abduct people, challenges our sense of safety and predominance in the Universe along with the great challenge it presents to western dualistic thinking.
Definition of Alien Abduction Experience:
Alien abduction, as reported by experiencers, shows a strong consistency among the individual accounts. Those who experience AAE are coherent and yet personal in their interpretations of the proposed events. Mack (1994) and Rodeghier (1994b) have proposed the following as the basic and most relevant elements of the AAE:
Being forcibly taken to unfamiliar territory by a nonhuman technologically superior entity. Secondly, the experiencer is the subject of intrusive medical procedures and thirdly, the experiencer will show appropriate emotional affect as a result of the experience.
Typically, the beings are described as humanoid, approximately 3-4 ft tall grey in colour with large black eyes. They appear to have the ability to levitate and move through walls etc – experiencers tend to attribute this to technology rather than “super powers” and have no individual features by which to tell them apart. Experiencers often report the feeling of “missing time” – a period of time which they have apparently lost, having no recollection of their personal whereabouts. It has been proposed (Newman and Baumeister, 1994;1996), that this is merely a Western fantasy probably due to media coverage and science fiction being readily available to the western public, however, Mack - a psychiatrist of Harvard University who has worked with many Experiencers in counselling- has examined cases in which the experiencer reports similar beings and events despite being from markedly different cultural backgrounds such as Africa, Brazil and Chile. Perhaps the interviewers interpretation of the reports are also influenced by popular belief independent of the experiencers perception- this would certainly be of valuable study in establishing a more specific criteria for a description of aliens. The experiencers are distressed to be taken against their will and consciously struggle against the feeling of complete physical paralysis. The struggle is usually found to be unsuccessful and they find themselves involved in what seems to be biological procedures, lying on a table with a bright light over head. The research seems to focus on the reproductive organs and sinus cavities. It has been proposed that this account is based on experiencers previous medical examinations (Miller 1994), despite certain procedural differences between normal medical practice and reports of AAE. Psychological procedures are seemingly conducted by use of holograms, mental imagery and lights – the beings are frequently described as telepathic.
In the aftermath, experiencers tend to seek psychiatric help and are inclined to desire a diagnosis rather than believe they were indeed abducted by aliens. These patients are often diagnosed with Post-Traumatic-stress Disorder (PTSD) but certain specific symptoms such as avoidance of linked stimuli (particularly medical or dental procedures, bright lights, even avoidance of UFO literature) and locus of experience. Also sleep disorders, autonomic hyper-arousal, intrusive images; this led to a new classification of disorder known as Experienced Anomalous Trauma (EAT)- coined by Wilson (1990) as a traumatic reaction to an unknown event. Experiencers often take preventatory measures against future occurrences. Experiencers tend to have cuts, bruises, scoopmarks and/or rashes of unexplained origin, sometimes even implants are reported but this could hardly be attributed with great confidence to alien medical procedures as anything removed tends to of benign origin. No implant or residue of alien (or unusual) origin has ever been produced for scientific examination (Jacobs 1993). Although Mack ascertains that the experiencers' accounts correlate even in the smallest details that are not available to the media, it would be of worthy investment to have more cross-cultural research conducted to ascertain more certainty about the exact etiology of this modern syndrome.
Examining the Psychopathology of Experiencers:
It has been hypothesised by some that the AAE is a manifestation some mental illness; Munchausen syndrome, multiple personality disorder, dissociative disorders and various psychosis could account for images of aliens, self inflicted marks or even psychosomatic injuries, and give rise to reason such as attention seeking – Munchausen syndrome. However there appears to be no one disorder that could account for all the specific symptoms of AAE. On examining the psychopathology of experiencers, we find rather intriguing results. Many suggest that the AAE is a symptom of some abnormal psychology and therefore we would expect that experiencers will differ from normal people psychologically. However, most studies which compared the experiencers to a control group found there to be no significant difference in psychopathology - Spanos (1993), Parnell and Sprinkle (1990). Apart from those suffering trauma (PTSD/EAT), Mack (1994), Powers (1994) found that the results could not identify illness that would cause the AAE, but were a result of the experience. However the methodology of some experiments has been criticised; Appelle, points out that Mack used only 4 of his 76 subjects of AAE due to limitations on time and money; Jacobson and Bruno (1994) gathered the narrative of twelve experiencers personal histories and of their “abduction”. Their results showed that there was no evidence of any psychiatric illness in their past, yet two of the patients showed signs of extreme psychiatric disorder around the time of the reported abduction! Further scrutiny of positive correlations have been noted where subjective impressions of second hand biographies were used to assess experiencers yielding results of fantasy- proneness. Clinical impressions have severe limitations in assessing psychopathology especially where no standardised battery of tests is utilised. It seems that although the experiencers appear to be no different from the general population (accounting for AAE stress related trauma), there are bound to be a some people who do show abnormal psychology. It does not mean that this abnormality explains their AAE since their narrative is consistent with those of sound mind.
Personality of Experiencers:
Whilst psycopathology may not give a clear account of what may be causing this phenomena, some researchers have suggested that certain personality syndromes may well predispose specific people to incorporate the UFO material in to their imaginations, then believe these productions to be real events that have occurred. In 1984, Hartman examined individuals who suffered nightmares and found that they commonly shared unusual traits such as difficulty to distinguish between boundaries such as real/unreal, self/nonself and events that they dreamt and real occurrences. This personality syndrome is known as Boundary-Deficit. Boundary –deficit personality also includes other potentially AAE related effects such as difficulty in perceiving time scales, are emotionally sensitive (tendency to feel victimised and powerless) and have a weak personal/sexual identity. Kottmeyer (1988), compared Boundary-Deficit individuals to the content of AAE accounts and noted that such individuals could easily experience, missing time, unexplained scars (origin simply forgotten), and nightmares may well include images of aliens. Together with general sense of powerlessness and feelings of victimisation and social rejection, it is perhaps not surprising that such an unhappy person will be prone to anxiety ridden dreams. Kottmeyer attributes the AAE content of the nightmares to be due to popular culture media and hypnosis. However, Kottmeyer's study was based on speculation and did not involve a systematic study of alien abduction Experiencers. As Kottmeyers work would yeild a test for predictive indicators of a Boundary-Deficit personality when investigating a reported AAE, Spanos et al (1993) found that the AA Experiencers were no different from controls and actually were far from being boundary-deficit. On the contrary, a weak sense of personal/sexual identity among experiencers was found by Slater (1985), but one must wonder if this is not a result of the intrusive experience rather than a cause. Higher rate of Schizoid tendencies was found in some, Parnell and Sprinkle, 1990. Again a high rate of suicide attempts among experiencers in group assessed by Stone and Carmen, 1994 may well be reducible to symptom of PTSD/EAT rather than a personality syndrome.
Perhaps the conflicting and rather inconsistent results are a clear call for less variation across the studies in methodology and analysis and even if some do show some symptoms of disorder, we still must account for those who don't and are consistent in AAE narrative.
Newman and Baumeister(1996) theorized that the AAE was an attempt by some to “escape the self” – avoidance of meaningful thought via the use of fantasy. They hypothesise that masochistic fantasy is an viable explanation to the AAE; pain, loss of control and humiliation are all effective ways of escaping the self and provide explanations for mysterious scars, and the bizarre nature of the procedures endured by AAE. Again , the influence of media, popular culture and investigators is thought to bring the fantasy to the point of a believed abduction. On analysing Bullard's data on the narrative of several experiencers, Newman and Baumeister found that details of the biological procedure -which entails being naked forced on to a table and viewed by unknown spectators- is consistent with the humiliation and sexual nature of masochistic fantasies. 50% males and 80% report this kind of examination; this correlates with experience of masochists.
In opposition to Newman and Baumeister, John Mack has argued that the scars received do not follow any known masochistic pattern and report no pleasure in recalling the experience. The wounds are inconsistent with masochism but show consistency among experiencers (Jacobs 1992) and are in body places that are inaccessable to the individual. Both men and women do not report any sexual arousal, in fact the more intense the experience the more anxiety and distress is suffered. Mack (1994) points out that the difference in the examination statistics is more likely to be due to the fact that men and women will respectively be examined in different ways due to the accessability of reproductive organs. Also he notes that pain is not an ongoing issue during the experience as the pain can be so intense that they experiencer reports some form of dissociation. Here it is further hypothesised that “missing time “ may be experienced due to the sense of continuity being compromised by the ego in order to retain conciousness without disturbing images/sensations (Davies and Frawley, 1999). Hence the AAE does not clearly fit the masochist' behaviour or desires.
It has also been hypothesised that a certain Psychically Sensitive Personality could account for the AAE. Many of the experiencers report having increased psychic ability due to the “abduction” (Bullard 1994; Ring 1992) and some report having long histories of paranormal phenomena before the “abduction” (Basterfield 1994, Bullard 1997). Ring (1990) found that experiencers tend to have similar personality traits to those who consider themselves psychic. In either case shared traits does not suggest a possible explanation t o the AAE. Perhaps people who believe they have been abducted by aliens are predisposed to believe in the paranormal or maybe only psychically-sensitive people are capable of having such experiences, be they actual abductions or some other manifestation of a psychic experience. It could be noted that those individuals who have had long histories of such unusual events will be inclined to believe in the paranormal as a suitable explanation.
Proposed Psychodynamic explanations of AAE:
A psychodynamic approach has been used to explain the AAE in terms of symbolism used as a means for the mind to deal with anxiety. Throughout history, certain themes of folklore have prevailed such as fairies, succubi, angels, and goblins. These themes have been compared to the modern AAE and are thought by some to have a common origin within the psyche (Sagan 1996; Vallee, 1969). Upholders of the psychodynamic interpretation purport that the AAE is a product of the unconscious mind, although there is debate over the cause of such manifestations. Powers (1994) proposes that the AAE is a “Screen Memory” resulting from traumatic childhood abuse. She suggests that abduction by aliens will serve as a suitable memory to avoid recollection of their real abusive past and will restore more meaning to their lives (they were selected and participated in interstellar research as opposed to being a mere victim). Many researches have found a correlation between AAE reports and childhood sexual abuse, (Laibow,1989; Ring and Rosing, 1990; Powers, 1994). Although there is a persistent correllation between childhood abuse and AAE and Powers noted elevated levels of PTSD scores in both victims of child abuse and AAE, there is no evidence to suggest that childhood abuse is in fact the cause of AAE - any connection is based on mere speculation. Furthermore there is no reason given to suggest why abduction by aliens would be a “suitable screen memory”, why would it be any less traumatic? The added stress of being victim of such a socially denied concept, and the consistency of the reported experiences supposedly chosen by the unconscious as a “screen” (which is ineffective as a stress-relieving mechanism) and the fact the Laibow, 1989 showed both AAE and childhood trauma reports from same individuals makes the Screen Memory rather implausable if it is not screening the abuse. Based on the evidence and rule of parsimony, this theory does not provide an adequate explanation. However, an interesting link between childhood trauma and AAE has been suggested by Mukerjee, (1995) who noted that the hippocampus of child abuse victims was smaller than controls and hence the short term memory and levels of the hormone cortisol (which is responsible for certain emotional responses) are effected. Consequently, Mukerjee has hypothesised that this alteration of the hippocampus, predisposes such individuals to experience deficits in memory and dissociative tendencies. This could perhaps lead to some partial explanation of missing time and distorted memories of childhood abuse, but many of the AAE reports are by people who show no signs of childhood trauma but are consistent with their reports.
In 1976, Grof revealed a similarities between imagery reported by LSD users and perinatal imagery; resultantly, Lawson, (1985; 1984) has argued that the AAE is in psychodynamic terms, an unconscious representation of the experience of birth. He proposes that he lights and journey in to the craft is symbolic of the birth canal and the appearance of the aliens is “foetal like”. Furthermore, he reckons that the doors and hallways represent the cervix and that flat implements and tools used by aliens is symbolic of the placenta. This seems perhaps that Lawson is begging the question where anything encountered will automatically fit some element of his theory by speculative assosciation, also, it would seem that the birth experience would be in reverse as AAE reporters are being taken in to the UFO. However, to support his theory Lawson has suggested that oxytocin – a hormone that is present during contractions in the womb – is responsible for the feeling of missing time; memory loss has been shown in lab rats who have been injected with oxytocin. He contends that birth memories are “….sufficiently reliable” (pg213), despite there being no established link or mechanism that links such experiences with the actual event of birth.
The consistent specifics of the reports of those individuals who recall forced hybrid breeding with the aliens, have been purported to be reliving an abortion experience (Stacy, 1992). Stacy regards the AAE in this condition to be the relieving of guilt associated with termination of a foetus – he argues that the hybrid baby allows the experiencer to believe that their terminated baby is in fact safe in some celestial abode. The aliens are said to be angelic nurses caring for the child aboard the “mother” ship. Stacy also portends that both men and women make use of such a psychodynamic mechanism in order to relive psychological tension. He even extends the abortion anxiety to those who have never experienced a terminated pregnancy; he claims that many people share the moral anxiety of the issue, and may not even be aware that this is so. This, according to Stacy is why AAE occurs in men and women whether or not they have experienced abortion. There have been no systematic tests to verify this claim and although this theory can account for wide diversity among experiencers, it doesn't account for the reports from young children who would not yet have an understanding of the abortion concept.
Carl Jung's Collective Unconscious theory has gained much support in recent years among researchers of parapsychology as it offers an explanation for a multitude of psychic phenomena. It has been explained as an inherited impersonal, collective, and psychic consciousness, which is universally identical in each person and independent of our own personal consciousness (Jung 1936). UFO sightings and AAE has been proposed as some manifestation of imagery associated with the collective unconscious (Jung, 1959; Grosso, 1985); the purpose of this imagery is to bring environmental issues to light as we are seen to be responsible for the state of the Earth. The archetype of the AAE is thought to be of unsympathetic beings exploiting mankind to save their own dying race; hence we are to heed this psychic warning and address such issues as global warming and endangered species. Grosso has proposed that these experiences are an essential mechanism of the evolution of the human psyche; similarly Ring (1992) perceives this as the conscious evolution of our innate abilities to perceive other, dimensions and realms which are said to be ontologically real. In reference to Jung's Collective Unconscious theory many other proponents of the AAE as some archetypal message, believe that the purpose of the experience is that of a warning against future catastrophes and that we should endeavour to understand this phenomenon as a psychic defence mechanism (Vallee, 1990; Mack 1994). Although this meta-physical approach appeals to some sense of parsimony, it remains highly speculative and devoid of any evidence to explain the physical symptoms of AAE.
Electromagnetism and the Frontal Lobe:
There has been much research carried out in reference to electromagnetism; there are suggestions that sites of anomalous lights in the sky – UFO sightings- and AAE can be attributed to strain on the tectonic plates beneath certain locations on the Earth (Persinger, 1990). Accordingly, the theory proposes that the distorted or unusual electromagnetic fields that occur as a result of tectonic strain, will affect the human brain in such a was as to cause anomalous experiences. Persinger, (1990) and Blackmore, (1994) conducted experiments involving electromagnetic fields directed at the human brain, and demonstrated that the temporal lobe is in fact affected and subjects report feeling sensations such as being lifted up and being physically pulled by an unseen force. Blackmore argues that such experiences provide adequate ground for AAE stories to be made, however, this again does not explain the consistent and specifically structured content of AAE narratives. Further, Persinger (1990), points out that in order for electromagnetism to have such an effect, the energy would have to be highly localised and sufficiently intense – similar to that of neurosurgery. Whether it is possible for naturally occurring electromagnetism to specifically meet the necessary conditions of such experiences is highly questionable. The temporal lobe lability (assumed to rate the suscepteaility to electromagnetism) was assessed by Spanos et al (1993) and it was found that there was no difference in lability between control subjects and alien abduction experiencers.
The idea that the AAE explained by way of a hoax where individuals deliberately deceive others in order to gain psychososcial rewards/financial profit and celebrity status has been proposed by many including Klass (1988). Klass points out that there is an abundance of UFO books, television shows and films available to the general public and so it would be easy for a deceitful individual to give a fairly convincing story as it would tend to correlate with the generally accepted steroeptypical experience. Klass has suggested Maunchhausen Syndrome or Factitious Disorder (DSMIV pg 472-474) as the root of the AAE but the characteristics of this do not fit with the experiencers behaviour ie experiencers tend not to have had a history of hospitalisation for false illness. Although there are bound to be certain people who will hoax for gain, they do not fit the AAE profile and genuine experiencers seek help not fame and are reluctant to discuss their experiences for fear of ridicule, again the narratives are too consistent in small details for hoaxes to account for the AAE.
As many of the AAE are recalled form memory by way of hypnosis, the accuracy of the experiencers memories are put to question. Under hypnotic regression, tests have been shown that the certainty of pseudomemories increases; Farthing (1992) ; Smith (1983). It has therefore been suggested that inaccurate hypnotic recall (where the subject is highly suggestible) accounts for the creation of many memories of AAE – More AAE accounts are recalled under hypnosis than by natural recollection (Bullard, 1987, 1994). However this does not mean that the recalled memories are false and does not account for those AAE memories recalled without hypnosis- approx 30%, which still correlate strongly in narrative to those hypnotically recalled- Mack (1995) ; Bullard (1989) . Bullard has proposed that the form and content of AAE is independent of hypnosis but the quantity of material “recovered” is not. Using the Creative Imagination Scale (Wilson and Barber 1998), Rodeghier, Goodpaste and Blatterbauer, demonstrated that experiencers are no more hypnotically suggestible than general population. On the other hand, Lawson, 1997; found that there to be similarities between hypnotically recalled AAE and imaginative accounts of what it would be like, however, Randles (1994) noted inconsistencies between accounts given by subjects asked to imagine the AAE, and the prototype of alien motives and procedures. Also there was markedly no “memory” of entry into the craft. It should be noted however that Randles used British subjects and then were compared to American prototype – perhaps this suggests a cultural difference in media influence.
Wilson and Barber (1981, 1983) determined the “fantasy- prone” person , as having ability to hallucinate at will and have imaginary experiences which they describe are as being totally real and have difficulty distinguishing between fantasy and reality. It was shown by Wilson and Barber that fantasy-proneness correlates with hypnotizability. Such fantasy-prone individuals have tendencies to report fake pregnancies, claim to be psychically aware of other dimension which they can travel to via astral projection; Bullard (1994) suggested that AAE reporters are of the same population as fantasy-prone individuals. Contrary to expectations, studies have shown that those who report AAE are no more fantasy-prone than the general public (Rodeghier et al 1991) using the Inventory of Childhood Memories and Imaginings (ICMI) which was specific to measuring fantasy-proneness. Spanos et al. also found no statistically significant difference between controls and experiencers using a multitude of tests including ICMI, Bett's Questionairre on Mental Imagery and the Absorption scale from the Differential Personality scale; also Lynn and Rhue, 1988 found that experiencers tended to consistently score within the mid range of the general population on the ICMI scale . Tests which did find some general similarities between the groups, have been heavily criticised on methodological grounds. For example, Bartholomew, Basterfield and Howard (1991), found that 87% of experiencers each showed at least one symptom of fantasy-proneness- but their assessment was based on retrospective analysis of subjects narratives and not by any direct test for fantasy-proneness. In addition to this, they had no comparison group and used a mixed group of people - not specifically abduction experiencers. The integrity of fantasy-proneness as an explanation for the AAE is severely doubted on the grounds that experiencers do not fit the fantasy-prone personality type.
The Hypothesis of Sleep Paralysis:
Sleep Paralysis has often been proposed as the origin of the AAE, as many of the reported AAE cases were during night when victims were in bed/asleep; Blackmore (1997). When sleep paralysis occurs, individuals report physical paralysis (except their eyes), unexplained fear or anxiety and often hallucinate unfriendly beings in their bedroom (Baker 1990). The experience of sleep paralysis has been compared to the AAE narrative drawing on similarities, (Spanos 1993). Sleep anomalies appear to have a genetic element as they tend to cross generations within families; again another similarity here is that AAE often is reported within families. (Honda, Asaka, Tanimura and Furusho, 1983).
In contrast to these suggestive similarities, Mack (1994) points out that many of the abduction experiences occur in the waking state in daytime , often out doors, yet the narratives of experiencers taken in day time/waking state are consistent with those taken whilst in bed. In another case, 40% of subjects in Spanos (1993) study claimed their intense UFO experience was while waking; this suggests that sleep paralysis could not have been occurring during the experience, however, it should be noted that this group included people who were not “abducted” but had unusual encounters or witnessed unexplained lights or missing time. Mack (1994) also notes that sleep paralysis cannot account for the common details (which he claims are not available to or reported through the media) of the experience that goes across culture, age and gender as sleep paralysis is specifically a personal experience.
Similar effects are experienced in a narcoleptic attack where the individual will immediately transpose to REM sleep while seemingly awake to others present. Narcoleptic attacks can occur at any time of day or night, even while the sufferer is actively engaged in some task (Moorcroft 1989). When awaking, the narcoleptic is often unaware of the episode and it has been hypothesised that this provides raw material for experiences of “missing time” and strange encounters. However, images reported tend to be static and not of the same “real” quality as those in sleep paralysis (Roth, 1978). Also during narcolepsy, the limbs tend to go flaccid and so paralysis is not an integral component of this experience.
In his clinical work with experiencers, Mack has found that their nightmares, anxieties and insomnia tend to be resolved with conscious processing of their experience, this implies that their sleep problems are directly related to the AAE, however it could be proposed that the same problems could be resolve in the same way if this was a “screen memory”. The experiencers tend to show phobic reactions to related stimuli –this is not known to be resultant in cases of known sleep paralysis, Mack (1994). He also reports that through the use of electroencephalograph testing, he has found no evidence of any sleep abnormalities due to neurological reasons.
In addition to these problems with sleep abnormalities as an explanation for AAE, there is no apparent reason why during sleep paralysis, the “alien” scenario should be so prevalent. Hufford (1982), examined the phenomenon of the “old Hag” – a common fiendish encounter with similarities to AAE across Newfoundland. He questioned why, if this is to be explained via sleep paralysis, why are there specific narrative contents prevailing across and within cultures?
There have, overall been no direct tests to establish a link between sleep paralysis and AAE, and until such parsimonious guidelines have been established, the anomaly of both sleep paralysis and AAE remain unexplained.
The search for physical evidence of such an abduction occurring is a seemingly fruitless endeavour. Some experiencers have, on occasion, reported being taken from public places and have been witnessed, but verification of this is very hard to come by. However the possibility of these independent testimonies corroborating the AAE has huge implications if science can establish their validity. Supposed photographs, “alien” materials, hybrid foetuses, medical records of alien implants etc are not only sketchy and unreliable but are rare. There has as been no hard proof of extraterrestrials, visiting Earth or abducting people, perhaps the content of the AAE is the strongest evidence available, but the implications of such proof would be immense as a challenge to the very psyche of every human being. It seems implausible to assume that alien abductions are in fact occurring as we have nothing that directly suggests this. It should be remembered that this small (but growing) community of people, whom we have no reason to doubt the sincerity of their experiences, are subject to some anomaly, whether lien in origin or not. It appears that many of the symptoms of AAE could be explained through sleep paralysis, dissociation from trauma, and possibly physiological elements such as electromagnetism; but looking at AAE as an entirety brings these theories to a crunching halt. For the whole to be greater than the sum of its parts, we must perceive this issue as it is – symptoms of trauma which relate specifically to UFO/abduction material. It is difficult to contend that AAE is some coincidence of several, psychological factors (which are not related to one anomalous experience) all being present in people sharing the same experience as one another. It seems that it is the consistency of details which holds the phenomenon of AAE together. It also appears that it is this very same consistency that has broken the whole experience in to parts so that we might try to fit it in to current scientific constraints, and perhaps in doing so we are doing a great injustice to those who are suffering AAE, the human race as an entirety and the progress of science. The search for a parsimonious explanation , must continue but it appears we must be willing to consider new possibilities and perhaps after all, the sky is not the limit.
Appelle, S (1999 ) The Abduction Experience: A Critical Evaluation of theory and Evidence , New York College, Brockport
Blackmore, S (1999) Abduction by Aliens or Sleep Paralysis?, Susan Blackmore website .
Blackmore, S and Rose, N.J (1996) Experiences on the Borderline between Imagination and Reality , 20 th internation conference for the Society for psychical research
Davison, G; Neale, J (2001 ) Abnormal Psychology, 8 th Edition ; John wiley and Sons.
Hopkins, B (1987) Intruders. The Incredible visitations at Copely wood. New York, Random House
Hufford, D.J (1982) The Terror that comes in the Night , Philadelphia; University of Pennsylvania Press
Mack, J.E (1992) Alien discussions: Proceedings of the Abduction Study Conference , North Cambridge Press
Mack, J.E (1995) Abduction, Human Encounters with Alien s. Revised Edition, Ballentine, New York.
Mack, J.E (1994)
Mishlove, J (1993) The Roots of Consciousness, revised edition , Marlowe and company, New York
Roberts, R; Groome, D; (French,C) (2001) P arapsychology, the science of unusual experience ; (ch8) Arnold, London.
Spanos, N., Cross, P, Dickinson, K, and DuBrueil, S (1993) Close Encounters: An examination of UFO experiences. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 624-632.
back to paper options
© kittieklaw.com 2004